Authors: Ros McLellan and Maurice Galton with Megan Walberg
Institution: Creativity, Culture and Education, University of Cambridge
Full reference: McLellan R, Galton M和Walberg M(2015)《bat365官方网站》.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (World Health Organization, 1948).
When thinking about issues related to their health, most people probably think of physical symptoms of illness and perhaps a visit to their General Practitioner for treatment; but as is clear in the World Health Organization definition above, health encompasses much more than simply not being physically ill. In fact health is expressed in terms of wellbeing in the physical, mental and social domains. If health and wellbeing are seen as synonymous in this way, it stands to reason that research on wellbeing has important implications for health.
The authors of the report have a long-standing interest in young people’s engagement, motivation and more recently wellbeing in educational settings and have been working with Creativity, Culture and Education (bat365官方网站) for a number of years.
Their initial work, The Impact of Creative Partnerships on the Wellbeing of Children and Young People, (full report here)探讨“创意伙伴关系”计划是否对青少年的福祉有正面影响. This provided us an opportunity to explore in detail what is meant by wellbeing and to distinguish two facets; namely eudaimonic or functional wellbeing (ie self-actualisation and fulfilling potential) and hedonic or feeling wellbeing (ie feeling good and enjoying life.) Their review of the literature, The Impact of Creative Initiatives on Wellbeing: A Literature Review, (review here) suggested, that both could be fostered through engagement in creative initiatives. 他们的实证研究表明，参与创造性伙伴关系(CP)计划的学校更有可能促进年轻人的幸福，这是采取各种创造性举措的结果, 而没有参与该计划的学校则倾向于尝试和促进快乐幸福，作为一种手段，让年轻人更充分地参与到他们的教育中来.
This work had therefore demonstrated a strong, although complex, link between engagement in creative initiatives and young people’s wellbeing in school. With the support of Guy’s and St Thomas’ Charity, bat365官方网站要求作者审查基于艺术的干预措施是否有助于促进健康的证据, given the overlap between wellbeing and health noted above. The authors did three things:
他们对文献的审查表明，正在使用非常广泛的以艺术为基础的干预措施来促进健康的各个方面. In clinical settings, music, 视觉艺术和舞蹈/表达运动最常用于支持情感或心理社会，而不是身体健康方面. 在学校里，故事讲述与视觉艺术相结合的方式倾向于用于那些遭受创伤的孩子, 而音乐更有可能是那些有心理健康问题的学生的艺术选择，如抑郁症或精神残疾(如自闭症). Dance/expressive movement tended to be used to improve physical health but also to promote self-esteem. 大多数已发表的研究报告显示，一些积极的证据表明，干预措施对有关的具体健康指标产生了积极的影响. 然而，经过适当评估的干预研究(例如使用随机对照试验或至少一个对照组), with a reasonable sample size, 不依赖于一种形式的自我报告并在至少9-12个月的时间内运行的结果测量方法，在实际应用中是很少的. Thus overall the evidence is suggestive but not persuasive and more research is needed.
健康调查显示，在七年级开始和结束时，学生报告的与身体健康状况不佳有关的总体症状的频率是相同的，而且这在学校类型上没有区别. In other words, 在研究中，艺术学校的学生自我报告的身体健康状况与其他学校的学生没有什么不同. 问卷中健康的第二个方面与健康生活方式(饮食和锻炼)的报告有关。. 艺术类专业学校的学生报告说，与年初相比，他们在年末较少参加表明健康生活方式的活动, whilst students in the other schools remained level in this respect. However, this scale turned out to be borderline in terms of acceptable reliability, so we need to be cautious in drawing conclusions. 在研究期间收集的其他数据表明，在艺术专业学校推广的许多艺术活动并不针对七年级，学生在艺术干预方面的整体经验在这四个学校非常相似. 因此，很难在这项研究的基础上就艺术干预对健康结果的影响提出任何主张.
Finally, 对之前的bat365官方网站研究数据的重新分析表明，幸福与感觉健康和精力充沛之间存在着显著且更强的关系, compared to hedonic wellbeing and the same health indicators, 与小学相比，这种关系在中学生中更为稳固，而且在创造性伙伴关系学校中更为明显. Feeling stressed was more negatively associated with hedonic than eudaimonic wellbeing, and again the relationship was more marked for older students, and this trend was more evident in non CP schools. 总的来说，这提供了一些证据，表明在进行艺术干预的学校中，幸福(特别是真正的幸福)和健康似乎更紧密地联系在一起, especially at secondary school level. Although this does not prove any sort of causality, 它确实意味着，值得更密切地关注艺术干预在促进学校健康结果方面的作用.